International Institute Of Islamic Thought
205 Jalan Damansara
50480 Kuala Lumpur
Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas
M.A. (McGill), Ph.D. (London), D.Litt (Hon.) (Khartoum)
Al-Ghazali Chair of Islamic Thought and Member Royal Academy of Jordan.
Sami Khalaf Odeh Hamarneh
M.SC., Ph.D. (Madison)
Star of Jordan (1965), Edwards Kremers Award (1966), and Member Royal Academy of Jordan
M.A., Ph.D. (McGill)
Malik B. Badri
M.A. (Milwaukee), Ph.D. (Leicester)
M.A. (Milwaukee), Ph.D. (Chicago)
M.Sc., Ph.D. (Madison)
Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi
M.A., Ph.D. (McGill)
M.A. (Columbus), Ph.D. (Madison)
M.Sc. (Ankara), Ph.D. (Konya), Ph.D. (McGill)
M.A. (Ankara), Ph.D (Istanbul)
Wan Mohd. Nor Wan Daud
M.Sc. (Dekalb), Ph.D. (Chicago)
M.A., Ph.D. (Temple)
M.A., Ph.D. (Marmara)
M.A. (New Brunswick), Ph.D. (McGill)
M.A., Ph.D. (Edinburgh)
M.A., Ph.D. (Istanbul)
M.A., Ph.D. (Istanbul)
Muhammad Zainiy Uthman
M.A. (Chicago), Ph.D. (ISTAC)
B.A., M.A. (Khartoum)
B.Sc. (Khartoum), M.A. (Madison)
Ali Tawfik al-Attas
B.Sc., M.Sc. (North Carolina)
Zaidi bin Ismail
B.Ec. (IIU), M.A. (ISTAC)
Azhar Wan Ahmad
LL.B. Honors (IIU), M.A. (ISTAC)
B.Econ (IIU), M.Econ (IIU)
Sani bin Badron
LL.B. Honors (IIU), M.A. (ISTAC)
B.Sc., M.B.A. (Fresno)
Bazli bin Shafie
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
Farid bin Mohd. Shahran
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
bin Elias @ Mayah
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
Roskiman bin Abdul Samad
B.Ec. Honors (IIU)
Razi bin Jusoh
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
Zain bin Abd. Rahman
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
Asham bin Ahmad
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
Latif bin Abd. Razak
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
B.A. Honors (IIU)
B.A. Distinction (Virginia)
B.IRKH Honors (IIU)
B.A. Honors (IIU)
The program of graduate studies at ISTAC, while emphasising the field in general, will at present consist of three specialised programmes:
1. Islamic Thought, consisting of the major fields of theology ('ilm al-kalam), philosophy (falsafa-hikma), and metaphysics (tasawwuf-'irfan);
2. Islamic Science, its philosophy, methodology, and history;
3. Islamic Civilisation, which encompasses a wide field of studies including that of culture, history and the human and social sciences. At this initial stage courses in the fields of culture, history, politics, economics, law, psychology, and education will be offered including that of the major Islamic languages.
Certain fields of Islamic studies such as jurisprudence (fiqh) and Qur'anic studies will not be offered as a separate specialisation in this programme since there are other centres in the Islamic world where there exist major programme in these fields.
The courses in the specialised programme of studies consisting of the fields of Islamic Thought, Islamic Science, and Islamic Civilisation have already been grouped in such a way as to form a combination of subjects into a fundamental category each representing one of the major fields in the programme which at the same time relates itself coherently with the other major fields in the programme. There are four courses: The Religion of Islam, The History and Methodology of Qur'anic Interpretation, The History and Methodology of Hadith, and Logic and Methodology, which stand by themselves and are compulsory to all students of the Institute. The course Religion of Islam, is offered in the third semester of the academic year. It is designed to be an integrating factor in relation to all courses in the specialised programme studies at the Institute.
CC-1 - The Religion of Islam.
CC-2 - The History and Methodology of Qur'anic Sciences.
CC-3 - The History and Methodology of Hadith.
CC-4 - Formal Logic (al-mantiq al-suri)
[Islamic Thought + Islamic Science + Islamic Civilization]
(I) Islamic Thought (Theology-Philosophy-Sufism)
IT-1 - Primary Sources of Islamic Thought.
IT-2 - Early Islamic Theology.
IT-3 - Later Islamic Theology.
IT-4 - Islamic Theological Schools and Sects (al-firaq).
IT-5 - Readings in Islamic Theology.
IT-6 - Early Islamic Philosophy.
IT-7 - Later Islamic Philosophy.
IT-8 - Readings in Islamic Philosophy.
IT-9 - Early Sufism.
IT-10 - Later Sufism.
IT-11 - Major School of Sufism.
IT-12 - Intellectual Aspects of Sufism.
IT-13 - Readings in Sufi Literature.
IT-14 - Readings in Malay Metaphysical Literature.
IT-15 - Major Thinkers.
IT-16 - Topics in Islamic Thought.
IT-17 - History of Greek Thought and the Rise of Scholasticism.
IT-18 - History of Medieval and Early Modern Western Thought.
IT-19 - History of Modern Western Thought
IT-20 - Contemporary Western Thought
IT-21 - Oriental Philosophies
IT-22 - Islam and Comparative Religion
(II) Islamic Science (Philosophy-Methodology-History)
IS-1 - Islamic Science.
IS-2 - History of Science.
IS-3 - History of Islamic Science I.
IS-3 - History of Islamic Science II.
IS-3 - History of Islamic Science III.
IS-4 - Introduction to Islamic Thought.
IS-5 - The Islamic Philosophy of Science.
IS-6 - Philosophy and Methodology of the Islamic Sciences.
IS-7 - Topics in Islamic Thought.
IS-8 - Formal Logic.
IS-9 - Logic and Methodology
IS-10 - Philosophy and Methodology of Islamic Medical and Allied Health Sciences.
IS-11 - Philosophy and Methodology of Islamic Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
IS-12 - Readings in Islamic Science.
IS-13 - Islamic Medicine and Allied Life Sciences and Disciplines from The Prophetic Age to al-Biruni (1H-443H/1051).
IS-14 - History of Islamic Medicine.
IS-15 - Islamic Medicine and Leading Practitioners and Sages During the Ayyubids and Mamluk Period.
IS-16 - Practical Codes and Deontology in the Healing Arts.
IS-17 - On Remedial Agents, Drugs and Pharmaceutical Recipes.
IS-18 - Bibliographers and Lexicons-Catalogues on the History of Medicine and Pharmacy.
IS-19 - Muslim Influence on Scholarship and Learning in Medieval Europe.
IS-20 - History of Western Science.
IS-21 - The Philosophy of Modern Western Science and Technology.
IS-22 - Philosophy and Methodology of Life Sciences.
IS-23 - The Theory of Evolution.
(III) Islamic Civilisation
IC-1 - The Roots of Islamic Culture.
IC-2 - Intraduction to Islamic Sources.
IC-3 - Muslim Historiography.
IC-4 - Studies in Historical Sources.
IC-5 - Islamic Theories and Philosophies of History.
IC-6 - Islamic History I
IC-6 - Islamic History II
IC-7 - Intellectual History of India
IC-8 - Islamic in the Malay History and Culture
IC-9 - A History of Western Civilization
IC-10 - Principles and Methods of Islamic Education
IC-11 - Special Issues in Islamic Education
IC-12 - Moral Philosophy I
IC-12 - Moral Philosophy II
IC-13 - Topics in Islamic Thought
IC-14 - Philosophy of Western Education I
IC-14 - Philosophy of Western Education II
IC-15 - Contributions of Early Muslim Thinkers to Psychology
IC-16 - Islamic Counseling and Psychotherapy
IC-17 - The History, Philosophy and Methodology of Western Psychology I
IC-17 - The History, Philosophy and Methodology of Western Psychology II
IC-18 - Topics in Contemporary Psychology
IC-19 - History of Islamic Jurisprudence
IC-20 - Philosophy of Islamic Law
IC-21 - Legal Methodology in Islamic Jurisprudence
IC-22 - Islamic Constitutional Law
IC-23 - The Islamic Judicial System
IC-24 - Readings in Islamic Legal Texts
IC-25 - History of Islamic Administration I
IC-25 - History of Islamic Administration II
IC-26 - Institutions in Islamic Civilization
IC-27 - Sufi Social Institutions
IC-28 - Topics in Islamic Political Institutions
IC-29 - Introduction to Islamic Economics
IC-30 - History of Islamic Economics Thought I
IC-30 - History of Islamic Economics Thought II
IC-31 - Readings in Islamic Economics Thought
IC-32 - Comparative History of Business and Finance
IC-33 - Poverty Alleviation in the World of Islam
IC-34 - The Islamic Philosophy of Arts
IC-35 - History of Islamic Art I
IC-35 - History of Islamic Art II
IC-36 - Islamic Art
IC-37 - Musical Theory and the Philosophy of Music
IC-38 - Pre-Islamic Poetry
IC-39 - History of Islamic Arabic Literature
IC-40 - History of Islamic Persian Literature
IC-41 - Islamic Arabic Literature
IC-42 - History of Turkish Literature
IC-43 - Topics in Muslim Literature in Translation
IC-Ar-1 - Elementary Arabic I, II, III
IC-Ar-2 - Intermediate Arabic I, II, III
IC-Ar-3 - High-Intermediate Arabic I, II, III
IC-Ar-4 - Advanced Arabic I, II
IC-Ar-5 - Readings in Advanced Arabic Texts
IC-Pr-1 - Elementary Persian I, II
IC-Pr-2 - Intermediate Persian I, II
IC-Tr-1 - Elementary Turkish
IC-Tr-2 - Intermediate Turkish
IC-M-1 - Modern Standard Malay I, II, III
An analysis of the meaning of religion in Islam based on the Holy Qur'an and the Hadith, and semantics interpretation of the linguistic symbols. Interpretation of the salient doctrines of the creed ('aqa'id). The affirmation of knowledge and realities. The nature of God. The perpetual creation and allied topics. The meaning of religion will be explained in a comprehensive manner relating it to essentials in the fields of theology, philosophy, metaphysics, psychology, and epistemology. The position of the Holy Prophet in the religion of Islam and his role in Muslim life. The position of other religions. Critical analysis of modern interpretations.
A study of the phenomenon of the Qur'an, the concept of inspiration (wahy), revelation, history of the revelation of the Qur'an, its transmission, collection, preservation and dissemination, sciences for understanding the Qur'an (Ulum al-Qur'an: al-Nuzul, Nasikh-Mansukh, al-Khass wa al-'Am, Muhkam-Mutashabih, Amr-Nahy, etc.), study of the origins, development and methodology, of Tafsir literature, its kinds and schools (Madhahib al-Tafsir) and their comparative analysis.
An in depth study of the history of origins, development, transmission, dissemination and collection of Hadith literature, the study of the origins, development and methodology of Hadith Criticism, its genre of technical terms (Mustalahat al-Hadith), comparative analysis of major collections and their categories, science of biographies and major biographical dictionaries, et al.
A study of traditional logic developed by classical Muslim thinkers such as al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Athiruddin al-Abhari.
The Holy Qur'an and the Hadith. A study of the passages of the Holy Qur'an and selections of the Hadith which have served as sources of Islamic thought. Traditional commentaries from the earliest period to the present will also be studied.
Mu'tazila, Ash'ariyya and Maturidiyya. A survey of the rise of kalam in early Islamic society, the establishment of the Mu'tazila school, its rise and eclipse. The rise of the Ash'ariyya and Maturidiyya schools.
Later Ash'ariyya theology. The attack of kalam against falsafa. Al-Ghazali and later philosophical kalam. Nasiruddin al-Tusi and the rise of Ithna 'Ashariyya Kalam. Muhammad 'Abduh and neo-Mu'tazilite kalam.
A study of classical literature on sects, e.g., al-Nawbakhti, al-Baghdadi, al-Sharastani, and history of Islamic sects including an analysis of their beliefs and doctrines.
Reading and surveying the texts of prominent theologians and theological schools.
History of the speculative tradition in Islam. A survey of the early history of Islamic philosophy from its origin to Ibn Rushd, including the Peripatetic School (al-mashshaiyyun) and other schools within the speculative tradition of Islam.
From Ibn Rushd to the present. The rise of the Illuminationist School (al-ishraq) and its later history. Revival of the School of Ibn Sina by al-Razi and al-Tusi and the Existentialist School including that of Mulla Sadra and his commentators such as Sabzawari. Islamic philosophy after Sadra.
Reading and surveying the texts of prominent philosophers and philosophical schools.
A study of the doctrines,practices and major teachings of Sufism from its rise until the 6th/12th century based on works of such early sufi figures as Junayd al-Baghdadi, Rabi'a al-'Adawiya, Abu Yazid al-Bistami, al-Muhasibi, al-Hallaj, Sahl al-Tustari, al-Kalabadhi, al-Sarraj, al-Hujwiri, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi, 'Abdullah al-Ansari, al-Qushayri, Abu Talib al-Makki, and al-Ghazali; considering the sober (sahw) and the ecstatic (sukr) tendencies in them.
From 13th century to the present. A study on selected figures like Ibn 'Arabi, Jalal al-Din al-Rumi, Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, Jami, Mahmud Shabistari, 'Abdul al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani, Ahmad Sirhindi, Shah Waliyullah al-Dahlawi, Hamza Fansuri, Nur al-Din al-Raniri, Isma'il Ankaravi, and others. The development of tariqahs and the influence of Sufism upon various aspects of Islamic thought, culture, and civilisation.
An in depth study of principal schools and their representatives in the Sufi tradition such as the schools of Wahdat al-Wujud and Wahdat al-Shuhud, and the Ishraqi school.
An examination of the Sufi contribution to the intellectual elaboration of the Islamic worldview, which will also discuss the place of intellectual reflection and expression among the methods of realisation espoused by the Sufis, as well as points of both agreement and disagreement with the traditions of theology and philosophy.
Readings in selected texts from major Sufis: Abu Nasr al-Sarraj, Kalabadhi, al-Qushayri, Hujwiri, Abdullah Ansari, Sana'i, 'Attar, Ibn 'Arabi, Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi, Rumi, Jami, Sirhindi. English translations are to be used while original Arabic and/or Arabo-Persian and Persian phrases and terms will be presented and explained.
Selected Malay metaphysical texts by Fansuri, Sumatra'i, Raniri, and others will be read and explained.
A study of the major thinkers of Islam such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, al-Ghazali, Ibn Tufayl, Ibn Bajja, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Khaldun, Mulla Sadra, and others. This course will concentrate on the basic essentials in the thought of these various thinkers.
An investigation of particular topics in Islamic theology, philosophy, and Sufism. An analysis of the theory of knowledge; the theory of the self; the doctrine of prophecy and allied topics.
A survey of Greek philosophy, Platonism, Aristotelianism, Neo-Platonism, Roman philosophy including Stoicism and Epicureanism, the formation of early Christian thought. Christian Platonic and Neo-Platonic philosophy. Scholasticism.
Later Scholastic philosophy, philosophy in the Renaissance and Enlightenment, Descartes and Cartesian rationalism, British Empiricism, and Kant.
Surveying the Post-Kantian development in the West, with special emphasis on Hegel, Fichte, and Marx. A study of major thinkers until the present day including existentialism, positivism, pragmatism, and analytical philosophy, with a general survey of prominent western philosophers, such as Russell, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Sartre, Comte, Bradley, Dewey, Pierce and Whitehead.
A survey of either the Anglo-American Philosophy such as Analytical Philosophy or the Continental Philosophy such as Hermeneutics, Structuralism, Phenomenology, Existentialism, Deconstructionism, Post-Modernism, etc.
A study on the Eastern religious traditions, their philosophical-spiritual foundations, historical origins, development, and their contemporary forms. Hinduism, Buddhism, Theravada, and Mahayana, Taoism, Confucianism, and Shintoism will be studied based on scriptural and classical sources. Their encounter with Islam, Christianity ,and modernity will be studied.
A study on the encounter of Islam with other world religious traditions in Islamic history based on the views of Islamic philosophers, theologians, and Sufis derived from original and classical sources. The origins, historical development, and contemporary forms and ideologies of the Western religious traditions will be studied with the analysis of the development of Religionswissenschaft and its contemporary forms and practices in Western universities.
The Qur'anic view of the universe. A study of the verses of the Holy Qur'an dealing with the universe, natural phenomena, laws governing creation, and man's relation with nature. Traditional commentaries will be studied systematically. Arguments against Islamic Science shall also be examined.
From the beginning to the rise of Islam. A systematic study of the proto-history of the sciences, Babylonian, Egyptian, Graeco-Alexandrian and Iranian sciences as well as the genesis and development of the Chinese and Indian sciences. A systematic study of the history of medicine, life sciences, materia medica, medicinal plants, theriacs and poisons, alchemy, astrology and folk medicines of ancient civilisation listed.
From the beginning to al-Biruni. A survey of the translation of scientific texts from Greek, Syriac, Pahlavi, and Sanskrit into Arabic. The rise and development of the Islamic sciences including the mathematical sciences, physics, chemistry, natural history, agriculture and geography up to Ibn Sina and al-Biruni.
From al-Biruni to Nasiruddin al-Tusi. A detailed study of the development of the various branches of the Islamic sciences from mathematics to natural history from al-Biruni to the school of Maragha and Nasiruddin al-Tusi.
From al-Tusi to the present. A history of later Islamic science from India to Egypt and North Africa. The introduction of Western Science and technology into the Ottoman world, Egypt, Iran and Muslim India and the subsequent development of Western science in Muslim lands.
A discussion of the main themes treated in Islamic thought and a brief history of the major schools: the Peripatetic, the Isma'iliyya, the Illuminationist and the Existentialist.
A study of Islamic scientific conceptual schemes with a special reference to the contemporary problems in the philosophy of science. An attempt to elicit a contemporary theory of science from Islamic sources.
An examination of views of the major schools of Islamic thought concerning the meaning of nature, causality, the rapport between science and first philosophy, and the methods for the study of nature.
Metaphysics and theoretical philosophy. A study of ontology, cosmology, and epistemology in Islamic thought.
A study of traditional logic (al-Mantiq al-Suri) developed by classical Muslim thinkers such as al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Athiruddin al-Abhari.
A study of modern logic in relation to the traditional logic developed by Muslim thinkers.
The philosophy of Islamic medicine, its historiography; appreciation of environmental and ecological public health, preventive and clinical medicine, preserving health, nursing, and midwifery; medical education, colleges and methods; planning curricula, courses and specialisation; Islamic hospitals throughout the Islamic world and the importance they had in the development of the profession, and the relationship between the physician and the patient and his folk, hospital structure and administration and some of the main hospitals in Muslim lands east and west, and in al-Andalus; and the care for the child, the mother and the elderly and the humanistic Islamic touch and impact in these areas in health care.
An examination of the Islamic theories of number, form, time, space, force, movement, matter and causality, and the relation of the sciences to each other. Islamic cosmological schemes will also be studied in their relation to the particular sciences.
Reading and analysis of selected texts of prominent scientists and the schools they represent such as al-Farabi's Fi Ihsa al-'Ulum, the Tabi'iyyat of Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' and the sections of al-Tusi's Asas al-Iqtibas, the treatises of Ibn Haytham, the Durrat al-Taj of Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, etc. A study of the underlying philosophy, methodology, scientific terminologies, findings and solutions of problems.
Introduction to ancient cultures, particularly the Greek: Hippocrates, Aristotle, Dioscorides, and Galen; then a survey of works by eminent sages and physician-pioneers such as Harith b. Kaladah al-Thaqafi, Ibn Athal, al-Dimashqi, al-Tabari, Yahya b. Masawayh, al-Kindi, al-'Ibadi; the transmission period from ancient and contemporary cultures to Arabic; the translations from Indian, Pahlavi, Syriac, and Greek; scientists and giants in medicine and philosophy: Abu Bakr al-Razi, Ibn Sina, al-Qumri, al-Jurjani, al-Majusi and his medical encyclopaedia al-Maliki, 'Isa b. 'Ali al-Kahhal, and Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and their works and contributions to the progress of medical sciences.
Physicians and Institutions (mid 11th to mid 13th C.E.) under the Abbasids; the Fatimid period (909-1171): A survey of Islamic medicine and eminent medical practitioners, great sages and thinkers of the Fatimid period in Egypt, Palestine, and North Africa; Civilisation in Islamic medicine and culture in al-Andalus (8th to 15th C.E.) medicine and leading medical thinkers of the Andalusian Umayyad Caliphate and the Andalusian golden age in medical science, culture, economy, and industry. Leading figures: Sa'id b. 'Abd Rabbih al-Qurtubi and his al-Dukkan, on pharmacy, therapy, and compounded drugs. 'Arib b. Sa'd the paediatrician, Ibn Juljul on Dioscorides' Materia Medica, and his biography on physicians and sages of Greeks and Muslims, completed 377H / 987CE; the physician, pharmacist, and surgeon Abu'l-Qasim al-Zahrawi (d. ca. 404H / 1013CE) and his al-Tasrif; the sage-physicians from Ibn Wafid al-Lakhmi of Toledo, Yunus b. Baklarish, and his al-Musta'ini book on therapy; and al-Ghafiqi's al-Murshid, on eye diseases and treatment, al-Idrisi on natural products; to several authors wrote on agricultural (al-Filaha), and horticulture. Finally, Banu Zuhr (Avenzoar), and Ibn Rushd (Averroes, d. 589H / 1193CE) and his al-Kulliyat, on generalities in medicine as compared with al-Taisir in the pathology of the body's organs.
Medical sciences under the 'Abbasids had another climax with the writings of Ibn A. Usaybi'a, al-Baghdadi, Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki, and Ibn al-Nafis; the biographer, Jamal al-Din al-Qifti and his History of the Sages; Diya al-Din al-Malaqi of al-Andalus, who became well-known as a herbalist in Egypt and Syria, ended with the rise of the Mamluks. The survey ends with the translation of Arabic medical texts into: Latin and the vernaculars. This influenced the West to ignite the flame that lasted to the time of the European Renaissance and beyond.
A study on the "Codes of Hippocrates" on ethical medicine from the Prophetic writings (al-Tibb al-Nabawi), and pioneer writings by al-Dimashqi in al-Haruniya, Ibn Masawayh in al-Nawadir al-Tibbiya, in a form of aphorism, axioms, and self-evident maxims. Quotations mentioned in al-Tabari's Firdaws al-Hikma, and the unique text of al-Ruhawi's Adab al-Tabib. It was followed by al-Majusi al-Malaki (late 4th. H / 10th. CE); Ibn al-Hasan's al-Tashwiq al-Tibbi (464H / 1072CE); his contemporary Ibn Ridzwan; I. A. Usaybi'a (d.668H / 1270CE); and Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki's conservation of health (d.1286); finally, adab al-Tabib in today's Islamic world.
The Aqrabadhins materia medica, herbals, and medical plants; spices in trade, occult sciences as alchemy; alcohol beverages; smoking and its effects on health. Drug addiction and ways for treatment, the art of pharmacy as developed into a rational and technical profession in Islam. Concise biographical sketches of leading pharmacists and professionals.
The curricula and methodologies of teaching, General Synoptics and expounding of the healing arts, bibliographies, primary references and chronicles including the wafayats. Also surveying catalogues, lexicons, and the works of translators and biographers including the following figures and their major works:
al-Yaqubi's Tarikh, al-Dinawari's Kitab al-Nabat, Ishaq b. Hunayn's al-'Ibadi, Ibn Juljul's Tabaqat, Ibn al-Nadim's Fihrist, al-Qumri's al-Tanwir, and al-Khawarizmi, Abu'l-Rayhan al-Biruni, Ibn Butlan, Sa'id al-Andalusi's Tabaqat, and al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Hubal al-Baghdadi's Mukhtarat; al-Sharif al-Idrisi and Ibn al-Baytar, Ibn Khallikan's Wafayats, and Ibn Abi Usaybi'a's 'Uyun.
A historical survey of the Islamic influences on the West from the 10th C.E. century onwards in the fields of philosophy, theology, mysticism, the natural and medical sciences, and the arts. Sources in Latin and its vernaculars will be used.
From the Middle Ages to the present. Early Medieval Western science, the influence of Islamic science upon the West, the development of late Medieval and Renaissance science, and Scientific Revolution and subsequent history of science to the present day with emphasis upon the important landmarks in the history of physics, astronomy, and biology.
An analysis of the major schools of the philosophy of science in the West from the 19th century to the present, including positivism and phenomenology. Current studies and critiques of modern technology.
An examination of the views of Western philosophers and scientists from Antiquity until the present on such topics as the philosophy and epistemology of biology and bioethics.
An analysis of the problems of the origin of life and the evolution of living creatures as expounded by prominent philosophers and scientists such as Aristotle and Darwin and their influences on different aspects of human life.
A study of the worldview and values that have emanated from the Qur'an and served as both the foundation and matrix of Islamic culture.
An introduction study on the growth and development as well as the rationale of the main references in Islamic thought and civilisational studies such as the bibliographies, biographies, the fahrasa, lexicons, and dictionaries. Besides the classical Arabic and Persian works, modern works by Brockelmann, Sezgin, and other will also be studied.
An introduction to the tradition of historical writing among the Muslims, dealing with the philosophy of history implicit in Muslim historiography as well as the development of its techniques, methods, contents, and genres. Historical texts written in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Malay will be considered.
A study on the nature of historical sources, their variety and degrees of authoritativeness, and associated linguistic difficulties and problem of authenticity. Works will include but not limited to books on Siyar, maghazi, history, historical geography, history of cities, and travelogues.
Readings in Qur'anic commentaries, Hadith, and the works of Islamic philosophers and historians on the meaning of history and the temporal process.
From the rise of Islam till 1500 CE. Arabia, Byzantine, and Sasanid Empires on the eve of the rise of Islam. The Medina State. The Caliphate and Khulafa' al-Rashidun. Transformation of the caliphate into dynasty and Umayyads. Political and theological developments in this period. Abbasids and the new elements in the administration. Relations with Byzantine and Franks. Crusades. Central and provincial break-down in the Abbasids and emergence of new dynasties with different religious-political missions such as Fatimids and Seljukids. The spread of Islam in Central and South East Asia.
Since 1500 CE. The archival and library sources of the period. Anatolia, Balkans, and Arab provinces under the Ottomans. The emergence of Safavid and Babur dynasties in Persia and in India respectively. Ottoman relations with Europe and Muslim dynasties. Islam in Central Asia and Malay Archipelago. Islam and the Muslims in Africa. Dhimmis (Christians and Jews) in the Ottoman State. The role of the 'ulama' in various Muslim states. The impact of the West on Muslim world and the increasing importance of Caliphate and jihad. Reforms (islah) in various administrative fields. Muslim minorities and their problems in various parts of the world.
From Shah Wali Allah to Iqbal. A study on selected intellectual figures based on their writings. Their contributions to Islamic thought, culture, and civilisation.
This course will discuss the impact of Islam in the Malay World, especially its role in bringing about a new period in the History of the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago, and its influence in the rise of Malay intellectual and literary history,as well as the rise of the Malay language. Various theories on the coming of Islam, the question of periodisation in the Malay history and culture, and methodologies used by scholars to analyse the intellectual and historical events in this part of the world will be discussed.
This course will concentrate on all the major features of the history of Western civilisation as a process of secularisation. It wills et forth a comprehensive definition of what constitutes the meaning of secular,and examine the phenomenon of secularisation as a philosophical program.
An interpretative study of the principles and methods of education in Islam as derived from the Holy Qur'an and the Sunna of the Holy Prophet, as well as the works of authoritative scholars such as Ibn Hazm, Ibn Sina, al-Ghazali, al-Zanuji, and Ibn Khaldun. Includes the various levels of education. The course will also analyse the development of the madrasa education in different Muslim countries pertaining to these two aspects.
A critical examination of some important issues in Islamic education such as the nature of man, aims, and objectives of education, the definition of knowledge and the classification of the sciences, modernisation and secularisation, and Islamisation. Particular attention will be given to the works of modern thinkers such as Muhammad Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman, S. H. Nasr, Ismail al-Faruqi, and S. M. Naquib al-Attas.
A study of religious ethics developed by Muslim thinkers such as al-Ghazali and al-Tabarsi.
A study of philosophical ethics developed by Muslim philosophers such as al-Tusi, al-Dawwani and Ibn Miskawayh.
Ethics and Practical Philosophy. The view of Islamic philosophers concerning ethics and politics.
A survey of the prominent ancient scholars such as Plato, Aristotle, Protagoras and Zeno, and their Medieval successors such as Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Erasmus, and Comenius.
An analysis of the educational philosophy of John Locke, Rousseau, Marx, Dewey, Maritain, Skinner, and others and their implications in educational contents and methods.
An in depth study of the psychological thought of early Muslim philosophers, sufis and theologians such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Sina, al-Muhasibi, Ibn Khaldun, and Ibn Taymiyya. The course will concentrate on examining the original Islamic, philosophical and scientific sources of early Islamic psychology, its unique methodology and its influence on modern psychological thought.
A study on the methodology and practices of early Muslim counsellors and psychotherapists such as the muhtasib, the dedicated educators and doctors, and the sufis and philosophers. The course then focuses on the development of a modern approach to the counselling and psychospiritual therapy of Muslim children, adolescents, and adults which endorses this Islamic heritage and avoids the secular theories and practices of Western counselling.
A study of the emergence of Western psychology from a general philosophical and scientific background. The course will concentrate on a critical examination of the secular roots of the theory, content and systems of Western psychology, namely, psychoanalysis, behaviourism, biopsychology, humanistic, and cognitive philosophy.
The history, philosophy, and methodology of Western Psychology based on in depth selected areas of Course I. Detailed contributions and biographies of the most prominent Western psychologists and philosophers and their important role in the secularisation of psychology and the Western social sciences in general. Recent developments in modern psychology such as the theories derived from contemporary research in biopsychology and the so-called cognitive revolution. The future of Western psychology, its new developments and relation with materialistic philosophy and secular morality.
An evaluation of the methodology of the use of modern biological sciences in contemporary psychology. A study of the psychological theories and practices based on genetics and the physiology of the nervous and endocrine systems. Criticism of the justifications provided by these experimental studies to modernity's secular ethics such as reductionism, the denial of freedom of choice, and the hereditability of practices such as homosexual and criminal behaviour.
A survey of the judicial phases during which Islamic legal thought and institutions were established. The rise of major schools of law, and conflicting Sunni & Shi'i trends in interpretation of Shari'a will be examined in the light of historical developments.
This course deals with the nature and ultimate goals of Islamic law. It attempts to examine the criteria of justice or utility, ultimate happiness or uniformity of results within the divinely ordained system of Islamic law. It also offers an evaluation of legal authority in Islam: its divine basis and mechanism of its enactment by human. This course surveys the unifying role of revealed sources vis-a-vis the rational process of interpretation through the channel of ijtihad.
A study of legal theory ('ilm al-usul) and its principles (usul al-fiqh) as worked out in Islamic Jurisprudence. The sources of Shari'a, methods of interpretation: deducing law by analogy and ijtihad, applications of commands and prohibitions: rules of abrogation, consideration of public interest, and juridical equity and custom.
A study on the concept of authority and Umma in the Qur'an, Sunna and Muslim political thought. A survey of the evolution of government and the emergence of "state" in the Muslim world; an examination of the constitutional Law of Muslim countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan.
A study on the concept of judicial system, the development of the system and the relation between the judicial system and the other institutions in the Islamic state.
Readings in selected texts from early schools of Law. A special attention is given to the period of emergence of the schools of Law (al-madhahib al-fiqhiyya). Thus, the works and views of Malik b. Anas, Muhammad b. Idris al-Shafi'i,Abu Yusuf al-Ansari, Muhammad b. Hasan al-Shaybani, etc. constitute the core of this course. Original Arabic texts is explained in English with relevant references to the later-period works of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence.
A study on the philosophy and principles of Islamic administration and its institutions based on the texts on administration culled from standard sources by writers such as Qalqashandi, al-Mawardi, etc.
Basic political and administrative institutions and their conceptual and practical bases. Military, financial, judicial, and provincial organisations. Ruling institute (caliphate and sultanate, Wizarate, Diwan, diplomacy and bureaucracy, finance (maliye), army, and provinces. Historical terminology and calendar.
The emergence and spread of Islamic civilisation; its spiritual and material bases. Basic religious, cultural and social institutions such as mosques, libraries, waqfs, hospitals, etc. Selected texts from the sources about legal, financial, and functional situation of the institutions.
A study on sufi master-disciple relationship and its role in the development of Tariqa orders, Futuwwa organisations, and Asnaf-Akhi brotherhood. It will also discuss the Sufi notion of adab and its bearing on the formation of Sufi hierarchy.
A study of three Islamic political institutions: Imama (the leadership of the Muslim community), Bay'a (the oath of allegiance by which the authority of a leader is recognised), Shura (the mutual consultation), and their roles in shaping up the Muslim political system.
A study of Islamic Economics with the values implicit therein, its methodology and branches: a critique of capitalism, socialism, and the rate of interest (riba); on consumption - its motives and goals, and savings; on Riba - its elements and types, its prohibition in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; macro-economic problems related to interest; on production and enterpreneurship; zakat - its definition, disbursement, and macro-economic implication, and its variety; on ownership (al-mal) - theories of ownership, property rights; and an Islamic perspective on money - money as commodity, the function of money and a critique of the Western view of money.
The concept, definition, and criteria for classification of the sources. A study of the sources and methodology to derive meaning and significance, and relationship with economic theory and policy, law, and ethics. The Qur'an and Tafsir literature, Hadith and its commentaries, works on Fiqh, Kalam, Tasawwuf, Akhlaq, Falsafa will be used alongside with works on politics, history, geography as general sources. Specific works on al-Kharaj, al-Amwal, al-Hisba, al-Kasb, and al-Tijara, e.g. al-Maqrizi's Ighatha al-Umma will be studied closely.
Main economic themes recurrent in the classical sources of History of Islamic Economic Thought, such as Kharaj, Kasb, Tijara, Hisba, Futuwwa, Riba, Zakat, Musharaka, an 'Ilm Tadbir al-Manzil.
Classical Islamic texts or extracts from these texts pertaining to economic matters, such as al-Kasb, al-Tijara, al-Kharaj, al-Amwal, al-Hisba, 'Ilm Tadbir al-Manzil, and 'Ilm Tadbir al-Madina.
A study of private finance in Islam - the Mudabara (Commenda), the Mufawada, the inan and the vucuh; the Western evolution of the Mudabara (Commenda) in Europe - the origins of the Commenda, its structural characteristics, liability and diffusion in Europe and Asia; the Societas, the Compagnia, the Medici Conglomerate, the Carati, Partnership in England, Joint-Stock Companies in the Netherlands, Venture Capital in the United States, the return of business partnerships to the Middle East; the evolution of Business Partnership in the Islamic world; Financing Shipping and Shipbuilding in the Ottoman Economy; the Cash Waqfs; Financing the State; and the Islamic banks.
An advanced seminar course on the nature of poverty, its definition and problems associated with it. A comparative approach covering the Ottoman Empire, the Indian Sub-continent and the Malay world, spanning the period from the 17th century to the present. Capital accumulation, prohibition of Riba, the Hajj, and Business Partnership towards the alleviation of poverty. Provisionism in capital redistribution, tax-farming, and taxation. Evolution of state finance and contemporary issues in capital redistribution.
The meaning of arts as seen from the Islamic point of view, the question of aniconic art, lack of distinction between the arts and the crafts, the significance of symbolism, geometric patterns, arabesques, and calligraphic decorations.
Architecture and the plastic arts. A detailed history of Islamic architecture and decorative arts from the beginning to modern time as seen from the Islamic point of view, and relating these arts to both their cosmological and spiritual principles and social background.
Calligraphy, Illumination, Miniatures. A survey of the various types of Islamic Art dealing with the meaning of forms, symbols, and images and the history of each type of art as seen from the Islamic view point.
Architecture. The house and garden. Qur'anic symbolism, the cosmological and spiritual principles and social background.
The study of the classical works of al-Farabi, the Ikhwan al-Safa, al-Urmawi, al-Mawsili, and others on musical theory and the philosophy of music. A study of Sufi texts by al-Ghazali and Ruzbihan Baqli and others on sama'.
An introductory survey of the depiction of the Arabian Peninsula, its land and its people, and the image of the Jahiliyya society in pre-Islamic poetry. A study on the main themes and the forms of the Qasida and the Mu'allaqat, their main artistic traits and their poets.
History of Arabic literature from the Abbasid period to the present. A systematic history of Arabic literature in both the East and the Maghrib from the fall of Baghdad to the modern period. Arabic literature in non-Arab lands is also considered.
History of Persian literature from Rumi tot he present including late classical authors such as Sa'di, Hafiz, Jami.
A study on the verse and prose from the dawn of Islam until the present. Poets and writers, such as Hasan b. Thabit, Ka'b b. Zuhayr, Abu 'l-'Atahiya, al-Ma'arri, al-Hariri, al-Hamadhani, Ibn al-Farid, and al-Bosiri, etc. will be studied together with their literary works.
History of Turkish Literature in Anatolia, in the Balkans, and Central Asia from Ahmad Yesevi and Yunus Emre to the present, verse and prose forms. Divan literature. Mystic, religious and non-religious elements in the literature. Basic techniques and forms; examples from Fuzuli, Seyh Galip, Yahya Kemal. The 19th and 20th century Turkish literature influenced by Western ideas and forms.
This course focuses on the literary output of the Muslim world. It covers a host of literary genres ranging from poetry, to fiction, and epic in an attempt to have some insights in the massive wealth of Muslim contribution to world literature. Optional to all students but compulsory to those students who desire to pursue their theses on literature.
The goal of this three-semester sequence is the mastery of a core of vocabulary and the control of the basic syntactic and morphological structures of Standard Arabic. Activities include listening, comprehension, writing assignments, reading short selections as well as participating in conversations.
The goal of this three-semester sequence is to develop the Arabic language skills necessary to achieve a reasonable level of proficiency in the language. Emphasis will be placed equally on the four major language skills.
This course will emphasise the practice of grammatical structures as introduced in Elementary and Intermediate Arabic. The various skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking will be the major goals. Various topics related to the basic texts derived from classical works will be used as the main tools for expanding the students' vocabulary in order to enable them to move on to their next level of proficiency.
This two-semester sequence is designed and highly recommended for students who have mastered the grammatical and other basic structures and are ready to put their skills to more intellectually challenging uses. In addition to emphasising all language skills, the students will be exposed to technical, stylistic, thematic, and structural analysis of various pre-Islamic and Islamic Arabic literary genres.
Selected major Arabic works from different periods, covering different genres such as theological treatises, poetry, fiction, epic, etc., will be read to further enhance comprehension skills. Works by Ibn Hazm, al-Tawhidi, al-'Aqqad, and Nagib Mahfuz, among others, will be used.
Basic grammar, introductory reading and writing, and Persian conversation.
The grammatical structure of the language, text reading, writing composition, and conversation in Persian.
Basic grammar and vocabulary, introductory reading and writing and conversation.
The grammatical structure of the language, text reading, writing composition, and conversation in Turkish.
This is an introductory course of Modern Malay Sentences with emphasis on correct usage in speech and writing. It is aimed at the learner who needs to know how the Malay language is properly spoken and written for social interaction and intellectual discourse.