BACKROUND TO THE BATTLE
Bad feeling between Spain and England had existed since the 1750's . Spain was taking gold and silver from lands it had claimed from the Americans , and England wanted some of this wealth . Queen Elizbeth I encouraged Sir Francis Drake and other seamen to raid Spanish ships and towns .
Religious differences also caused conflict between the two nations . Spain was a Roman Catholic country , and most of England was Protestant as a result of the reformation . In the 1560's the English had began to aid the Dutch Protestants who were re-belling agnist Spanish rule . In the early 1580's King Philip II of Spain started planning to send an army to invade England . He hoped to aid the English raids and to make England a Catholic country again .
THE TWO FLEETS
Philip began to assemble the Armada in 1586 . Spain built many new war ships and armed existing more heavily . In 1587 Drake raided Cadiz harbour in Spain , and destroyed sevral ships . The Armada was completed in May 1588 , the Portuguese port of Lisbon , Then under Spanish control . Of the 130 ships in the Armada , many were large and slow . Some lacked ammunition . Philip named the Duke of Medina Sidona , on experienced seamen , to command the Armada .
Meanwhile , England armed many of its merchants vessals and added them to it fleet. Englands fighting ships were smaller fastier and easier to manouver than the Spanish ones.England also had more skillful sailors. Admiral Lord Howard, commanded the English fleet, and his squadrom leaders included Sir Francis Drake, and John Hawkins and Martin Frobisher.
The Armada left Lisbon on May 30, 1588,(May 20 in England). It intered the English Channel July 30 (July 20) and fought long- range gun duels with English war ships during the next few days. On August 6 (July 27) the Armada anchoredat Calais , France ,Medina Sidonia had planned to meet barges carrying Spanish troops from Dunkerque, port in the Netherlands, but Dutch gunboats prevented the barges from meeting the Armada .
In the early hours of August 8 (July 29th ) the English sent eight fire ships towards the Armada. The Spanish ships sailed out to sea to escape the flames. Later that morning about sixty English ships attacked an equal number of Spanish ships off the port of Grave lines in France. The English sank two Spanish ships and damaged the rest . The crippled Armada fled to the North Sea . It returned to Spain by Northward around the British Isles. Heavy winds recked many ships off the coast of Ireland , and only sixty five returned to Spain.
WHO PLANNED THE ARMADA CAMPAIGN?
King Philip II of Spain planned the campaign . The was totalof around 30,000 men. His plan was to invade England and under Spanish rule and make it a Roman Catholic country.
WHO WAS THE COMMANDER OF THE SPANIARDS.
The commander of the great Armada was the duke of Medina Sidiona. He hoped he would be able to join forces with the Duke of Parma in the Netherlands. To his horror Jhis did not happen. The Spaniards put two great ships out of action , The Rosario and the San Salvador.
DID THE ARMADA RETURN TO SPAIN?
Many ships were wrecked off the cost of Scotland and Ireland. Of the 150 ships that left 65 returned. Peace was finally returned after the conference at Somerset House in 1604 by James 1.
PHILIP II OF SPAIN
Philip II ruled from 1556 until his death. He succeeded his father, Charles V. Philip regarded himself as the champion of the Roman Catholic faith, and supported the harsh measures of the Inquistion. He was born at Valladolid, Spain, and was married to Queen Mary 1 of England. He was born in 1527 and he died in 1598. He envaded England in 1588 because of Religion but he failed.
Sir Francis Drake.
Sir Francis Drake an explorer and military commander . He was the first English man to sail around the world. He tookpart in the Spanish Armada. He was born in 1540 ?and he died in 1596. He had no form of education but he had great self confidence and ambition. He was born in Plymouth in Devon shire.He was knighted in 1581 by Elizibeth 1 after he had sailed around the world.
Elizibeath 1 was Queen of England 1558 until her death in 1603. She was a strong clever ruler. She was twenty five when she became Queen. She was born at Greenwich in London in 1533. Henry the eight was her Father and Anne Boleyn was her Mother. Anne Boleyn was excuted for treason. Her Father died in 1547. She was the First Prodestant Queen of England and Ireland. She alway tried Peacful means but when they failed she went to war.
The Spanish Armada was a fleet of armed ships that tried to invade England in 1588 . The Spanish fleet had been caled the Invincible Armada because the Spaniards taught it could not be defeated . But the English defeated them . The failure of the Armada was a great blow to Spain . Spain was the Worlds most powerful country at the time but it still remained a major country . The English mearchants and sailors challenged the Spaniards with greater confidence through out the world.
By Kathy Walsh 6th Class 1998
by Kathy Walsh 6th Class